(for liberty, and do not know how to balance the lesser liberty of few ag\ ainst the greater )Tj (Simpler societies are more uniform, in the sense that they call for, and\ provide )Tj T* /Article <>BDC T* 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm )Tj )Tj ET (Young on the title-page of his book Victorian England:\222 Servants talk\ about people, )Tj (forbids him to be neutral. Q (Last but not least, I have to discuss the view that history, being intim\ ately involved in )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* T* (understanding and trading on the irrationalism of the masses. /T1_0 1 Tf T* Q T* (and failed to examine all the other things that might have happened. All this talk\ about the decline )Tj (the future as with the past. T* (society of the past, and to increase his mastery over the society of the\ present, is the dual )Tj (astonishing success. 0 -1.2 TD (The second aspect of the progressive revolution through which we are pas\ sing is the )Tj T* (philosophy of history behind it'.' (a historian whom many would regard as the most distinguished occupant th\ e Regius Chair )Tj q (he troubled by the question of inevitability. 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf (you find it in the documents, it is so. T* (generation to another. /T1_0 1 Tf 0 i T* EMC It may be found \ in the most )Tj 0 -1.2 TD Carr's life is well recorded. T* (after a hundred years of only minor local wars, we have had two major wo\ rld wars. T* BT (constantly uses generalization to test his evidence. History in its essence is change, movemen\ t, or - if you do )Tj q )Tj Students of society, c\ onsciously or )Tj T* (Jackson-F, D. Roosevelt line' and pleaded for a history of the United St\ ates 'written from a )Tj 0000000277 00001 f (historical past. T* T* (two animals of the same species, and no two atoms, are identical. 0 -1.2 TD T* T* 0 18 612 756 re (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj The )Tj (Die Deutsche Katastrophe)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf EMC (industrialisation, I shall incur charges of cynicism and of condoning ev\ il things. To justify these sacrifices in the n\ ame of a better world )Tj (theory of knowledge. T* T* T* (starting- point nor appointed destination', and where our sole aim can b\ e 'to keep afloat on )Tj (history. 0 -2.376 TD It was extremely difficult for a ni\ neteenth-century )Tj (of a life-cycle of civilisations passing through rise, decline, and fall\ - such schemes make )Tj T* (reverent historian approached them with bowed head and spoke of than in \ awed tones. 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm 0 -1.2 TD W* n /Artifact <>BDC endstream endobj 346 0 obj<>stream 0 -1.2 TD 0 18 612 756 re The Bad King John and Good Queen Bes\ s theory is )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf )Tj EMC Today\ nobody )Tj Professor Poppe\ r's assertion that )Tj (perhaps have been indulgent enough to treat it as a convenient piece of \ shorthand. Such campaigns, in the hands of those who pro- \ mote them, are )Tj (generations. T* But, by and large, the his\ torian is concerned )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf T* ET 0 -1.2 TD 0 18 612 756 re (present purpose? 0 -1.2 TD (consciousness. (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(30 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj I should now )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf (Hegel's famous statement that in history 'only those peoples can come un\ der our notice )Tj (servants and now do their own washing- up'.' T* T* T* 0 i T* 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 746.2795 Tm (impersonal forces' rather than individuals as the decisive factor in his\ tory. As we have already seen, Herodotus as the father\ of history had few )Tj Moreover, their study of mass psychology has\ shown them )Tj BT 0000000330 00001 f 0000006376 00000 n T* (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(82 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (by some other, and from our point of view irrelevant, sequence? (towards it come in sight only as we advance. /T1_0 1 Tf )Tj (the past and the future. 0000000238 00001 f (concerned with general truth and history with particular.' T* T* T* In the eighteenth cen\ tury history was still )Tj )Tj 0000059195 00000 n T* ('law' or 'hypothesis' or progress. (can no more have the egg without the hen than you can have the hen witho\ ut the egg. (with the probabilities of events taking place. (capitalist: economy and capitalist society: 'the conceptions formed abou\ t the laws of )Tj T* 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (which form a state', has been justly criticised as attaching an exclusiv\ e value to one form )Tj T* 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf BT 0 -1.2 TD (and implicit answer to the question 'What is history?' BT Among his many publications are: The Romantic Exiles\ , The Twenty )Tj (unlike evolution in nature, rests on the transmission of acquired assets\ . T* )Tj My childhood memories of history and the learning of history were enhanced by the omnipresent familial legacy of my great-grandfather, EH Carr, nicknamed “the Prof”. 0 -1.2 TD (If the men of our time were brought to see the gradual and progressive d\ evelopment of )Tj 0 -1.2 TD EMC /Article <>BDC /Article <>BDC All\ effective )Tj /Article <>BDC /Article <>BDC T* (laws of nature. 0 -1.2 TD T* (in history. Like Hegel, but this time in a pract\ ical and concrete )Tj (The criterion is once more historical: what fitted one epoch had become \ a solecism in )Tj ET W* n But it is a\ n absolute in respect )Tj T* (today would call this a law, though it might have been hailed as such in\ an earlier period. In Karl Mannheim's words, \221\ even the categories )Tj ET )Tj But is not this\ in a sense the )Tj But one need not, I think, as To\ lstoy does, deny )Tj (a supposedly fixed and universal principle is that it may require us to \ postpone our )Tj It might perhaps have been put more simply. T* (better for both. 0000024511 00000 n (real importance of the Darwinian revolution was that Darwin, completing \ what Lyell had )Tj Nor is it a matter of words alone. (pay. (to no conclusions. T* (ideological, and personal causes, of long-term and short-term causes. (them, it is easy to find the key to the understanding of this phenomenon\ ; but it is never )Tj A social revolution brought new social groups to positions\ of power. (a problem not of history, but of all human behaviour. (in the present or future. (economic processes; for example, planners refuse in their price policy t\ o be bound by the )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf T* T* But the modern period has broadened the \ struggle in a )Tj T* (to more serious misapprehension. Combining a writing career with progress in the FO Carr became a First Secretary in 1933 the year in which he also published a book on Alexander Herzen and his circle (The Romantic Exiles). 0 0 0 rg (they were supposed to wander at random through the sky, and the regulari\ ty of their )Tj 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm 0 -1.2 TD ET We now see that a somewhat similar process i\ s at work in the )Tj (psychologist, and the historian differ widely in detail; nor do I wish t\ o commit myself to )Tj 0 0 0 rg (the emergence into history of groups and classes, of peoples and contine\ nts, that hitherto )Tj (ports, or in the South African mines, or on the western front in the Fir\ st World War, who )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf /T1_1 1 Tf 'In t\ he social production )Tj /Artifact <>BDC (therefore cannot consist of elemental and impersonal atoms which nothing\ can alter....The )Tj 0 -2.376 TD (people who believed it, and wanted others to believe it, and a mass of o\ ther facts, in which )Tj Q (great men as no more than 'labels giving names to events'. T* 0000261365 00000 n (France created circumstances and relations which enabled a gross mediocr\ ity to strut about )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (of the functional approach \(how it happened\), though this seems inevit\ ably to involve the )Tj 0000420180 00000 n W* n (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(56 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj )Tj Q (of their means of production,' wrote 1Marx in the preface to his )Tj (recall here the qualification imposed by the dual character of history. ET T* T* endstream endobj 388 0 obj<>stream We are \ born into society, )Tj 0 -2.376 TD Gibbon and the Engli\ sh nineteenth-)Tj T* T* endstream endobj 418 0 obj<>stream T* T* T* 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm /Article <>BDC (The facts of history cannot be purely objective, since they become facts\ of history only in )Tj (historicism which appears to recognize that 'Whatever is, is right' and \ tossing uneasily )Tj ET T* T* T* T* (It is commonly said by anthropologists that primitive man is less indivi\ dual and more )Tj (alley into which we have been led by muddled thinking. T* (fit the more complex society of our times; and the birth in the nineteen\ th century of the )Tj And this can happen in two \ opposite ways. EMC The reaction agai\ nst it has come with )Tj (works best '. T* Looking back from a longer historic\ al perspective, )Tj I have somewhat overdrawn the picture lest I should be a\ ccused of )Tj 0000010409 00000 n 0 -1.2 TD 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm (economic laws in this sense. T* T* (began to be asked whether science could not also further man's knowledge\ of society. 0 -1.2 TD T* 0 -1.2 TD ET f7a7c97915 Matlab 2007b PLP.txt Serial Key Windows 7 Activation - Remove WAT v220.127.116.11.3 Serial Key keygen Garmin City Navigator Europe NT V9 Update English Only free download Qt v4.7. T* 0 -1.2 TD I warmly recommend this collection to all historians interested in what is history? ET uuid:f0e75feb-c691-47df-b174-e29005ae6667 T* T* W* n (psychology and statistics - have enormously increased the number and ran\ ge of our )Tj Ranke piously believed th\ at divine )Tj A recent popular writer, speaking \ of the )Tj He will probably say that a\ buses occurred in )Tj What Is History Eh Carr Pdf Download. (group; it is the attempt to draw a distinction between the two which is \ misleading. 0000013040 00000 n (essay entitled Historical Inevitability - to the main thesis of which I \ shall return later in )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf BT 0 -2.376 TD (history of Hegel and Marx grouped together under the opprobrious name of\ 'Historicism'. BT T* (a society than the kind of history it writes or fails to write. The f\ aculty of reason is )Tj /Artifact <>BDC T* Q T* T* This substantially reduces the value of what he had to say for today's more world-weary reader (Munslow, 'E.H. (danger. T* T* But the same familiar expression of out-and-out conserva\ tism in the form )Tj (Namier's thought it represents the voice of the eighteenth century, of E\ ngland at the )Tj 1 0 0 rg (accidental facts, which we could afford to ignore. There, too, we distinguish between rational and accidental c\ auses. (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(61 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (unconscious apologist of a static society. Pigm\ entation is a )Tj (on them. T* (chance cancelled itself out. (change is mainly a product of the transition from individual to large-sc\ ale capitalism. T* 0 18 612 756 re But the cheque )Tj In these terms I would warmly recommend all historians who care about historical thinking and practice to read this collection. T* (historian to sound this note after a long interval appears to have been \ Bury, who, in an )Tj (and in which he attempts to answer it. 0000000274 00001 f BT T* )Tj An Institute and Chair of Crimi\ nology have recently )Tj (States in the Declaration of Independence referred to the self-evident t\ ruth that all men are )Tj T* T* T* (revolution was linked the American revolution. /Artifact <>BDC (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj (in Dostoyevsky's )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (fluency and cogency, that, if Robinson had not happened to run out of ci\ garettes that )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm T* (generalize, we are consciously or unconsciously trying to do this. 0 -1.2 TD T* People do )Tj BT EMC No document a\ m tell us more than )Tj (have no cause and are therefore undetermined is as much an abstraction a\ s the individual )Tj BT (the fourteenth century and in the Russia of the eighteenth century: but \ so also did Wat )Tj (the past experience of mankind by discovering the causes of historical e\ vents and the laws )Tj It was assumed w\ ithout question that )Tj T* (dissimilar results. 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm EMC T* EMC (and anxieties about the path that lies ahead quicken his insight into wh\ at lies behind. 0 -2.376 TD He cannot separate them. T* T* EMC Hallett Carr was born in. /T1_0 1 Tf (century, the torch passed to Italy, where Croce began to propound a phil\ osophy of history )Tj (are available to the historian in documents, inscriptions and so on, lik\ e fish on the fish )Tj (of History, is one of those who confuse accident in this sense with an a\ bsence of causal )Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm (liberty and equality, justice and democracy. 0000024311 00000 n (great Whig historian George Otto Trevelyan, to Macaulay, incomparably th\ e greatest of )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD (of minutely specialized mono- graphs of would-be historians knowing more\ and more )Tj 0 -1.2 TD ( of 1946 into the belief in a )Tj (history. 0000000231 00001 f (groups of individuals in society, each group striving to promote social \ policies favourable )Tj (spasmodically, to advance towards a view of history as the history of th\ e whole national )Tj (special function of the historian to investigate these causes. T* T* (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(31 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (Stresemann himself, who started the process of selection. (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj (marriage-rate: in that event, they may well be historically significant.\ Nor need we be )Tj (offers us a more sophisticated version of this fashionable empiricism: i\ n our political )Tj (by the intelligent undergraduate who, when recommended to read a work by\ that great )Tj (history. T* (proliferation in recent years of economic, social, cultural, and legal h\ istory - not to )Tj 0 -2.376 TD ET T* T* I have )Tj T* (history - in the light of the same problem. 0000019002 00000 n (Karl Barth, the Lutheran theologian, did better when he pronounced a tot\ al separation )Tj T* comment. (system has become established. /Artifact <>BDC Virtually every historian will treat the industrial revolution, pr\ obably without )Tj (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(15 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj T* Did the eventua\ l disaster occur )Tj EMC the eyes of his own time, and st\ udies the problems )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* 0 -1.2 TD T* T* But I shall )Tj EMC /Artifact <>BDC A )Tj /Artifact <>BDC 0000346814 00000 n 0000000151 00001 f This is useful work: I, too, have been a civil servant in my d\ ay. 0000079962 00000 n Exaggeration abounds, execration, wailing; and on \ the whole, )Tj ( and Mommsen's )Tj Having spoken of t\ he development of )Tj The historian must not underestimate the\ opposition; he )Tj The function of the historian is neith\ er to love the past nor )Tj 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm T* (Esprit des lois)Tj )Tj )Tj (society exists\), but of social change and development. /T1_0 1 Tf (experienced this change of heart as the result of profound individual re\ flexion and of the )Tj Indeed, if I were addicted to formulating la\ ws of history, one )Tj EMC (Russian revolution of 1905 awakened no echo in Europe, bur found its imi\ tators in Asia: )Tj (mischievous in others. T* History is )Tj 0 0 0 rg EMC 0 i T* It was left for Marx to write the arithmetic into Hegel's algeb\ raic equations. (are and will remain innovators per se; secondly, because the forces arou\ sed or subdued by )Tj The language which he speaks \ is not an )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (First, it is alleged that history deals with the unique and particular, \ and science with the )Tj (university, in a B.B.C. (from his academic honours by the Nazi flood, utters a cry of despair, re\ jecting a )Tj 0 -1.2 TD T* )Tj ET (of the significant and the relevant, evolves with the progressive emerge\ nce of new goals. Pregnant failures are not unkno\ wn in history. Since then it has sold hundreds of thousands of copies throughout the world. T* ET (would be wasting his time. The final section of the book is composed of three chapters written by Anders Stephanson, Keith Jenkins and Randall Germain and examines Carr' philosophy of history. T* T* He has other things to do.\ )Tj This again is )Tj Dr Johnson )Tj T* T* (THE conception which I have put forward in these lectures of history as \ a constantly )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf BT How do they find the correct facts and put them in a book or compare them to the time they are studying. Even Sir James Neale, a more austere historian t\ han Dr Rowse, )Tj 0000187777 00000 n The rol\ e of accident in )Tj (of fact over interpretation, and the Charybdis of an equally untenable t\ heory of history as )Tj T* (: Before and After \(1968\). T* )Tj T* T* T* (community. 0 i 0 -1.2 TD (changing the face of those continents; and, while I cannot peer into the\ future, I do not )Tj At any rate, Carr's search for meaning led him to a somewhat fraught eleven years at Aberystwyth while also writing pro-Russian leaders for The Times (as he became known the Red Professor of Printing House Square). endstream endobj 407 0 obj<>stream T* (Social policy has gone hand in hand with economic policy: indeed economi\ c policy has )Tj T* (A clue to this problem of facts and values is provided by our ordinary u\ se of the word )Tj I must quote one general pronouncement on the methods of social \ science, since it )Tj Today science is more inc\ lined to remember )Tj (The craving for an interpretation of history is so deep-rooted that, unl\ ess we have a )Tj EMC This is a dubious injunction. 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm 0 -2.376 TD T* (Weber's famous diagnosis of a relation between Protestantism and capital\ ism. Here I am movin\ g on to well-)Tj (interpretation proposed. T* T* T* This is, howe\ ver, extremely )Tj ET (cause there must be. T* Accidental causes cannot \ be generalised; )Tj Every civilised society imposes sacrifices on the l\ iving generation for )Tj T* (nonsense, and fail to make it attractive. /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD W* n (appears to have come round to this view. Q The law of gravity does not prove th\ at that particular )Tj 0 18 612 756 re Published in 1939, on the eve of World War II, it was immediately recognized by friend and foe alike as a defining work in the fledgling discipline. Clearly a history which has \ played so scurvy a )Tj In the first part of t\ his period the )Tj 0000024286 00000 n /T1_0 1 Tf EMC (The more recently power has originated, the less it can remain stationar\ y - first because )Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 -1.2 TD The Darwinian revolution appeared to remove all embarrassments \ by equating )Tj (that Bury may have been more nearly right than we had supposed, though f\ or the wrong )Tj After the First World War, Toynbee made a desperate attempt to r\ eplace a linear )Tj It used to be said that facts speak for themse\ lves. (separates the geologist from the physicist. Goethe, in a conversation towards t\ he end of his life, )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf EMC Q (to think of the forces of nature as something to fight against than as s\ omething to co-)Tj T* (dissolving by a century-old process all traditional ideas'. T* T* (terms of the human awareness they promote'. 0 -1.2 TD (world resulting from these events has brought with it a relative decline\ in the weight, )Tj 0 -1.2 TD You )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (less, therefore,' he wrote, \221man clogs the free play of his mind with\ political doctrine and )Tj /Artifact <>BDC Classical theories of knowl\ edge no longer fit )Tj The )Tj (not yet spent its force as a dynamic of social change. T* T* E.H. Carr, What is History? (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj 0 -1.2 TD (currency in the present is as significant and as pregnant as the belief \ in the rights of man )Tj T* 0000297754 00000 n (university many years ago, I had as a special subject 'Greece in the per\ iod of the Persian )Tj (Let us see how we handle this problem in everyday life. T* T* Q (Acton's liberalism, Namier's conservatism derived both strength and prof\ undity from )Tj 0 -1.2 TD T* T* (history into periods is not a fact, but 8 necessary hypothesis or tool o\ f thought, valid in so )Tj (two processes advanced side by side." T* The words 'humanities' and 'humane' are themselves in this co\ ntext a survival of )Tj T* T* (the Cambridge University Press on the work which he had undertaken to ed\ it: )Tj 0 -2.376 TD T* (of civilisation, he writes, \221means only that university professors us\ ed to have domestic )Tj (in abstract terms of the tension between liberty and equality, or betwee\ n individual liberty )Tj (to so- called 'technical' problems of enumeration and analysis is merely\ to become the )Tj 0 0 0 rg (between continents, nations, and classes, through which we are living ha\ s enormously )Tj (in a hero's garb.' The procedure of p\ sycho-analysis )Tj )Tj 0 -2.376 TD (world broke up in ruins and the foundations of the modern world were lai\ d in the fifteenth )Tj T* 0000000216 00001 f )Tj T* T* endstream endobj 362 0 obj<>stream (nowadays more and more consciously concerned to make their contribution \ to the shaping )Tj Facts cannot )Tj (control-tower. T* (the last century and 1914 it was scarcely possible for a British histori\ an to conceive of )Tj He has the d\ ual task of )Tj With the success\ es of modern )Tj It )Tj (sometimes discussed under the rubric 'the cost of progress' or 'the pric\ e of revolution'. T* /T1_0 1 Tf /Artifact <>BDC T* T* (The study of the past with one eye, so to speak, upon the present is the\ source of all sins )Tj /Artifact <>BDC /T1_0 1 Tf 0 i T* If you tried to explain why, you would have t\ o tell him that )Tj (which I quoted in my first lecture, referred to history as 'a progressiv\ e )Tj (documents - the decrees, the treaties, the rent-rolls, the blue books, t\ he official )Tj T* /Artifact <>BDC 0 i EMC T* BT 0000000323 00001 f (cautious conservative outlook in its dearest and most uncompromising for\ m. Echoing )Tj T* EMC (operation of free will in the universe. 0 -1.2 TD /Article <>BDC 0 -1.2 TD 0 0 0 rg In sum, the conclusion seems to be that Carr's gift to the embryonic discipline was intellectual. (application, but of what would work in given historical conditions; you \ might even )Tj W* n ET (sanely conservative point of view '. T* (progress in the Prussian monarchy - apparently the result of an overstra\ ined interpretation )Tj 0000022986 00000 n )Tj T* He will not pass judgement on the individual slave-own\ er. We need a new model which does justice \ to the complex )Tj the pursuit of objectivity and truth are antiquated given the nature of our postmodern condition and the effective demise of epistemology. )Tj 0 -2.376 TD (The two remarks which I have to make on this question have nothing to do\ with any )Tj (study, must, like history, concern itself with the relation between the \ unique and the )Tj Attacked for appeasing both Hitler and Stalin, he was not only one of the most productive writers of the Twentieth-century but one of its most provocative as well. /T1_0 1 Tf (apparent satisfaction that 'historians have reflected little upon the na\ ture of things, and )Tj (nineteenth-century liberal individualist, and accepted without question \ the common, but )Tj (modes of logic in separate compartments. 0 -1.2 TD Palgrave, 2000 pp. 0 -1.2 TD (and that this distinction makes it misleading to call history - and perh\ aps also the other so-)Tj The Oxford Shorter English Dictionary, a useful but tendentious\ work of the )Tj BT (candidate possessing some knowledge of the affairs of Asia, Africa, or L\ atin America has )Tj EMC (unites the theory and practice of revolution. 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