When she sees Anthony next time, she starts out talking about her golfing trip last weekend, and later in the conversation she requests time off. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. Conformity may result from either subtle, unconscious influences or direct and overt social pressure. The Stanford prison experiment was a study, conducted by Philip Zimbardo at Stanford University in 1971, of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard and. These results demonstrate that participants were willing to obey an authority figure and administer extremely harmful (and potentially lethal) shocks. Human behavior is extremely complex, and so there are always numerous variables to consider when interpreting such studies. If the other members of the group gave an obviously incorrect response, the participant was more likely to also give an obviously incorrect response (A or B). Organizational Life AND Teams. Kelman, H. C. (1958). Several factors are associated with increased conformity, including larger group size, unanimity, high group cohesion, and perceived higher status of the group. Informational social influence would explain why children typically copy the behavior of their parents and teachers as children believe that adults have a better sense of right and wrong. Low-balling: Low-balling is a tactic frequently used by salesmen. Psychologists have proposed a variety of definitions to encompass the social influence that conformity exerts. His initial experiment in 1951 was set up as follows. We can see how the producers manipulate the group development process, how the fundamental attribution error influences players, and how group decision-making concepts effect how the game plays out. For example, group influence can often be useful in the context of work settings, team sports, and political activism. It occurs when a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure. For example, before Anna goes to ask for time off from her manager, Anthony, she does a little research and discovers that he enjoys golfing. Social influence takes two basic forms: implicit expectations and explicit expectations. It has been further defined as a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. Conformity can be motivated either by a desire for accuracy, called informational influence, or a need for social approval, called normative influence. Removing this partner halfway through the study caused increased levels of conformity after their departure. They were then asked to estimate the amount it moved; however, there was no real movement. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. They flat-out refuse, because it is extremely expensive. This form of social influence is moderated by self-confidence and task difficulty. New products or fashions are introduced by innovators, who tend to be creative and nonconforming. For instance, men’s and women’s views of what the ideal body image is have changed over time. If the participant still wished to stop after all the verbal prods, the experiment ended. The cost may be monetary, time related, or anything else that requires something from the individual. Then early adopters join in, followed by the early majority. The participants were instructed that they had to shock a person in another room for every wrong answer on a learning task, and the shocks increased with intensity for each wrong answer. I thought I enjoyed watching it before, but after having a more complete understanding of social psychology, it makes watching it even more interesting! Groups must be cohesive, insulated, lack an impartial leader, and homogenous, as well as be in a provocative, high stress situation, in order for groupthink to occur. Pennsylvania State University. As we see in the case of Survivor, these fundamental attribution errors play a major role in how contestants view one another and select alliance members. Informational social influence would explain why children typically copy the behavior of their parents and teachers as children believe that adults have a better sense of right and wrong. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. These people were confederates, or individuals who were posing as other participants but were really working for the researchers. If at any time the participant indicated his desire to halt the experiment, he was verbally encouraged to continue. Perceived motion was caused by the visual illusion known as the autokinetic effect. Student videos. By this time, a substantial number of people are using the idea or product, and normative and informational influence encourages others to conform as well. Groupshift is a phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position. This often leads to public compliance—but not necessarily private acceptance—of the group's social norms.Social norms refers to the unwritten rules that govern social behavior. Start studying Social Psychology - Informational Social Influence. Milgram experiment setup: Illustration of the setup of a Milgram experiment. Minority influence is the degree to which a smaller faction within the group maintaining a different position on an issue influences the group during decision making. This is a perfect example of informational influence, where information from others provides a person more information about a social situation (Schneider et al., 2012). Low-balling gains compliance by offering the subject something at a low initial cost. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. Normative influence occurs when an individual conforms in order to gain social acceptance and avoid social rejection. Group strength, group size, immediacy, and similarity are all factors that can influence compliance in an individual. Muzafer Sherif was interested in knowing how many people would change their opinions to bring them in line with the opinion of a group. On the other hand, situations in Survivor often occur where an individual is certain they will vote a certain way but then discover information from other group members that changes their perception of the situation, often leading to a change in their vote. While conformity is often viewed as a negative characteristic in American culture, it is very common. The results indicate that environmental factors have a significant affect on behavior. If contestants attributed behaviors appropriately, it is possible that alliances could be different and the entire game could proceed in an entirely new way. Normative influence occurs when an individual conforms in order to gain social acceptance and avoid social rejection. When a person is in a situation where s/he is unsure of the correct way to behave, s/he will often look to others for cues concerning the correct behavior. Types of social influence on behavior is a very interesting and an important topic in social psychology. But the ethical considerations raised by these studies are even more controversial. Explain how certain motivators and factors may influence conformity. It goes on to show us that even though individuals might consider themselves to possess qualities of uniqueness, when studied, their behavioral patterns are not very different from other individuals. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. (2012), is an example of the pressure to conform influencing decision making, or the normative influence. It does not require the physical presence of others to occur—that is, knowledge of public opinion may cause an individual to conform to societal norms even when alone. I think one of the things that makes Survivor so interesting and drama-filled is the fact that, especially in the beginning, they force the tribes, or teams as I will call them here, to stay in the forming and storming stages of Tuckman’s developmental stages of groups. Social proof is considered prominent in ambiguous social situations where people are unable to determine the … In Milgram’s first set of experiments, 65% of participants administered the full 450-volt shock, even though most were very uncomfortable doing so. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. They quickly found that the majority of humans are surprisingly obedient to authority. On the first day, each person perceived different amounts of movement, as they participated in the experiment individually. At this point, many participants indicated their desire to stop the experiment and check on the confederate; however, most of them continued after being assured they would not be held responsible. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology. Jenness, A. Psychologists describe informational influence as following whatever work the crowd is doing, believing that they are a source of information. Information social influence occurs when people conform to peer views in an attempt to reach the correct answer for themselves; it is the desire to be correct. Informational influence and descriptive norms Social psychology is primarily concerned with learning how others influence our thinking, emotions, and actions in the field of psychological research. However, the influence of groups on the individual can also generate negative behaviors. People exhibit conformity when they change attitudes or behaviors to reflect a perceived norm. Kelman's varieties After running these experiments, Milgram and Zimbardo concluded that the following factors affect obedience: The Milgram and Zimbardo experiments stand as dramatic demonstrations of the power of authority and other situational factors in human behavior. Ostrich Effect. 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